An Entrepreneur

This page contains the CBSE entrepreneurship class 11 chapter An Entrepreneur notes. You can find the questions/answers/solutions for the chapter 2 of CBSE class 11 entrepreneurship in this page.

What did you understand by the term ‘corporate entrepreneur’ or ‘Intrapreneur’? Watch Video🎥

An Intrapreneur or a corporate entrepreneur is a person, who has entrepreneurial competencies and who innovate the products or services for the organization he/she is working for. The intrapreneur or corporate entrepreneur is usually an employee of a large organization who uses the resources and capabilities of the organization, rather than their own, to put their innovative ideas to practice and align their goals to the organizational goals.

Give a brief about ‘Entrepreneurial Motivation’. Watch Video🎥






Entrepreneurial motivation is the process that motivates an entrepreneur to

  1. always stay in the direction of their goal
  2. bring about the best of their efforts
  3. consistently hanging around their goal

to achieve their entrepreneurial goal.

Define competency. Watch Video🎥

Competency : Competency refers to a set of well defined behaviours that act as a road-map to

  1. recognize
  2. measure
  3. and develop

all the necessary behaviours required by a person to perform a job or achieve a goal.

In which direction does the value ‘Respect for work’ guide and direct an entrepreneur? Watch Video🎥

The value ‘Respect for work’ provides the goal direction for an entrepreneur and guides and direct them to pursue a career or path where in the growth and development is highly in proportion to the level of efforts they put in.

What are the features of fabian entrepreneurs? Watch Video🎥

Fabian entrepreneurs are the entrepreneurs with the following features.

  1. Adopt and follow conventional approaches
  2. Belong to family business
  3. Cautious
  4. Display lazy and shy behaviour
  5. Exhibit resistance to venture or risk(This can be considered as their crucial behaviour)
  6. Firm in their rigid and fundamental approach.
  7. Go for a change only for the fear of failure and loss.(This can also be considered as their crucial behaviour)

Give an example of Industrial entrepreneur. Watch Video🎥

An industrial entrepreneur is one who establishes an enterprise that manufacture products or provide services which are highly in demand. They exploit the economic resources to economically viable ventures. The enterprise, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd, which is in the business of car manufacturing and offering car related services is an example of such enterprises.

Who are motivated entrepreneurs. Watch Video🎥

Motivated entrepreneurs are the ones who are

  1. Ambitious to a high degree and are not satisfied by their job
  2. Believe in their abilities
  3. Highly Motivated start an enterprise to economically exploit their technical or professional skills and expertise
  4. They’re further motivated by the success of the venture

As a passionate entrepreneur, what is your suggestion to a fellow entrepreneur to re-kindle their passion. Watch Video🎥

Entrepreneurs should have passion in their work and love what they’re working upon. This will help them to stay unaffected during tough times. This will also help them to become role model for their employees. It is likely that the passion will decrease during tough times. They should take some time off during these times. During this time they can re-kindle the passion by reminding themselves of all the valid reasons about the motive behind starting the enterprise and the advantage of being their own boss.

Are the attitudes pervasive by nature? Watch Video🎥

An individual acquires an attitude through the social interaction with different individuals in the society. Different incidents and interactions with others form different attitudes in a person. Thus the attitude is not just developed by a person and many external factors are involved in forming an attitude in a person.
For instance the experience a person had after using a cell phone might form a positive or negative attitude towards the manufacturing company of that phone.
Another example is the experience a person had with the waiter in a restaurant a restaurant might form a positive or negative attitude about the restaurant itself.
Thus it is clear that the attitude is pervasive by nature.

Give a brief of each of the features of attitude. Watch Video🎥
The following are the features of the attitude.

  1. Acquired: The attitude is not acquired by birth. During childhood we acquire the attitude mostly from the family members. As we grow, we start acquiring the attitude from the society. We acquire the attitude gradually (not instantaneously). The process of acquiring the attitude remains throughout the life span.
  2. Behaviour: People behave in accordance to their attitude. In the absence of an influence, people with certain attitude behave in an intended way.
    For instance, when you enter a mobile store, you want to purchase a specific model of a certain company in the absence of any external influence. Attractive ads displayed in the store can influence you and change your behaviour(to purchase a different model or a phone of a different company). Even the sales man/girl might influence you to purchase a different model or brand. But in the absence of these external intervention to change your behaviour, you behave as per your attitude.
  3. Concealed or Invisible : Attitude is purely psychological and is not externally visible. However, depending on the behaviour a person exhibits towards a commodity or person or country, we can guess the attitude of a person. For instance, depending upon the interest shown by a student on a specific subject, we can infer that the student has a positive attitude towards that subject or faculty.
  4. Pervasive: An individual acquires an attitude through the social interaction with different individuals in the society. Different incidents and interactions with others form different attitudes in a person. Thus the attitude is not just developed by a person and many external factors are involved in forming an attitude in a person.
    For instance the experience a person had after using a cell phone might form a positive or negative attitude towards the manufacturing company of that phone.
    Another example is the experience a person had with the water in a restaurant a restaurant might form a positive or negative attitude about the restaurant itself.
    Thus it is clear that the attitude is pervasive by nature.

Give a brief about the value ‘Respect for work’. (The video is same as that of the question In which direction does the value ‘Respect for work’ guide and direct an entrepreneur?) Watch Video🎥
The value ‘Respect for work’ provides the goal direction for an entrepreneur and guides and directs them to pursue a career or path where in the growth and development is highly in proportion to the level of efforts they put in.
All the successful entrepreneurs are the ones who has high respect for work and believe in hard work.
What do you understand about the core value of the entrepreneurs ‘Innovation and Creativity’ Watch Video🎥

Innovation and creativity are the the most important core values of entrepreneurs. While creativity guide an entrepreneur to dream about creative ideas to improve an existing product or service or solve a problem, innovation guides them to put their ideas into practical use.
An entrepreneur exhibits innovation by

  1. Being unique and original in their solution.
  2. Contributing critical inputs for a new idea
  3. Develop or Improve the existing products or services
  4. Evaluating the new ideas
  5. Focusing on the solution even when failure occurs
  6. Go for a continuous search for problems in the society (so that they can resolve them)

Give a brief about various types of entrepreneurs. Watch Video🎥

Entrepreneurs are broadly categorized into four different types according to C.Danhof (Clarence Danhof).

  1. Innovative : These entrepreneurs innovate new products or services or improve upon them. They are very aggressive and intelligent to put their ideas into practice. These are common among the developed countries.
  2. Imitative : They follow the innovative entrepreneurs and are flexible to adopt their ideas. They start the enterprise by imitating other people’s ideas. They bring about the change and are very crucial for the underdeveloped economic societies
  3. Fabian : Fabian entrepreneurs are the entrepreneurs with the following features.
    1. Adopt and follow conventional approaches
    2. Belong to family business
    3. Cautious
    4. Display lazy and shy behaviour
    5. Exhibit resistance to venture or risk(This can be considered as their crucial behaviour)
    6. Firm in their rigid and fundamental approach.
    7. Go for a change only for the fear of failure and loss.(This can also be considered as their crucial behaviour)
  4. Drone : These are laggards who follow the traditional way of doing business and are reluctant to any change, even if they face losses. They do not utilize the opportunities they come across.

Why is an Intrapreneur crucial for an organization? Watch Video🎥
An Intrapreneur crucial for an organization because of the following reasons.

  1. They help the organization to innovate a new product or service.
  2. They work in accordance the organization’s culture.
  3. They work independently while being an integral part of the team structure.
  4. They align their thought process with the best interests of the enterprise they are working for.
  5. They have great influence on their colleagues.
  6. They put their entrepreneurial spirit to the best of the interests of the enterprise they are working for.
  7. They work on a win-win situation.

Give a brief about Google’s “Innovation time off” Intrapreneurship program. Watch Video🎥

“Innovation time off” is a motivation process, used by Google, to encourage the employees. In this program every employee spends 20% of their time to work on projects that interest them. This intrapreneurship program involves

  1. Select a project and submit the proposal
  2. Evaluate the project
  3. Approval of the project
  4. Monitor the progress of the project.

Several of Google’s products and services like Gmail, Google news, Orkut and adsense are products of this “Innovation time off” Intrapreneurship program. According to an announcement, half of the new products or services from Google were from this program.

In India, the enterprises like Marico and Kinetic Engineering Limited has introduced similar programs.
What are all the various sources through which we acquire attitude? Watch Video🎥

The following are the various sources through we acquire the attitude.

  1. Family members : At tender ages, the family member have a strong influence in the formation of attitude. It could be positive or negative.
  2. Need : Necessity changes our attitude others or objects. For instance, the need to reach the school or office, might change his attitude towards possessing a own vehicle as against the public transportation
  3. Group Associations : The groups that we belong to will have a great influence. For instance, if you’re in MPC group in 10+1, you might have positive attitude towards Maths. Being part of a soccer group might lead to development of negative attitude about another sport.
  4. Influential Others: A friend or a relative might influence you to form a positive attitude towards an object or product or person. For instance, your friend might influence you to develop a positive attitude towards a sport. Your favourite star might influence you (through ad) to develop a positive attitude towards a certain four wheeler.

How do we acquire the attitude? Watch Video🎥

Attitude is our behaviour towards a person, place, object or event, either positively or negatively. We are not exposed to a person or place or object or event when we’re born. It is only after we start growing that we come across these. Thus we can say that one do not possess an attitude by birth.
At tender ages, family members have a great influence in developing an attitude. These attitude will start becoming stronger as we grow.
Coming across various situations and meeting people will start influencing us and we start developing new attitudes. Thus we can say that the development of attitude is a gradual process.

Which type of entrepreneurs are over-cautious? (The video would be same as that of the question What are the features of fabian entrepreneurs? Watch Video🎥)

Fabian entrepreneurs are over-cautious and have the following features.

  1. Adopt and follow conventional approaches
  2. Belong to family business
  3. Cautious
  4. Display lazy and shy behaviour
  5. Exhibit resistance to venture or risk(This can be considered as their crucial behaviour)
  6. Firm in their rigid and fundamental approach.
  7. Go for a change only for the fear of failure and loss.(This can also be considered as their crucial behaviour)

These are the entrepreneurs who are the last to adopt the changes in the technology, environment and trend set of consumer behaviour. They put their enterprise at the risk of losing the business.

Describe the most important core values of the entrepreneurs. Watch Video🎥
Innovation and creativity are the the most important core values of entrepreneurs. While creativity guide an entrepreneur to dream about creative ideas to improve an existing product or service or solve a problem, innovation guides them to put their ideas into practical use. Thus without creativity there is no innovation and just dreaming of a creative product or service is not sufficient to start an enterprise. Thus we can say that both creativity and innovation are interdependent.
Compare and contrast the entrepreneur and the employee. Watch Video🎥

Feature Entrepreneur Employee
Motive To start an enterprise for personal satisfaction and to commercially exploit their innovative products or services. Provide service in an enterprise of their choice and work as per their aptitude and get a secured employment.
Role Owner of the enterprise and the sole decision maker. Servant in the enterprise with limited authorities.
Responsibilities They bear all the risk and constantly working for the enterprise. They do not bear the risk and work for only specified work hours.
Benefits They take all the profits earned by the enterprise. The profit is uncertain at times. In addition to this they enjoy the success of the enterprise. They take fixed salary. Sometimes they get bonus, if any, during special occasions or depending on their performance. Their takeaway income is limited. They can not have the sense of ownership of the enterprise.
Innovation They are constantly watching for the changes in the market and the environment to innovate better products or services and to drive the organization towards its goal. They perform their day to day activities of the job and meet the targets set by the business.
Qualification They should possess the entrepreneurial qualities like

  1. Self-motivated
  2. Creative and Innovative
  3. Ability to gauge the future
  4. risk-taking
  5. risk-bearing
  6. Persistence
They should have an educational qualification depending on the nature of the job. For instance, an engineer should have a degree in B.E/B.Tech/M.Tech, a manager should have an M.B.A in production or marketing etc. The qualities like being creative, persistent would be an added advantage.

Compare and contrast an intrapreneur and an entrepreneur Watch Video🎥

Intrapreneur Entrepreneur
They’re employees of an enterprise. They’re owners of an enterprise.
They do not bear any risk associated with the entrepreneurship. They are risk-bearing and risk-taking.
They are instructed to work on a special project or idea. They’re motivated to innovate a new product or service or put an idea into practice.
They use the resources and capabilities of their organization. They risk all of their own resources and capabilities
Their success is at the disposal of the management of the organizations. They’re their own bosses and work their way towards their success.
They work for the best of the interest of the organization. They setup the organization as per their interest.
These are growing class of 21st century employees. These are growing class of 21st century entrepreneurs.

What is the significance of the entrepreneurial competency ‘persistence’? Watch Video🎥

Many of the entrepreneurial ventures are unique and new. So, they need a very close watch. Once the product or service is in place, it should be marketed. If the market for the new product does not exist, the entrepreneur should find new ways to create the market, for selling their product or service. During this process, they encounter many hurdles. The entrepreneur should be highly persistent in their efforts and should not give up. Thus persistence is a vital entrepreneurial competency that the entrepreneur should possess.

What is the significance of the entrepreneurial competency ‘leadership’? Watch Video🎥

Many of the entrepreneurial ventures are unique and new. From the start of the enterprise to the stage where the product or service is introduced into the market, there is lot of uncertainty associated and the entire enterprise has to go through many hurdles and roadblocks. During this, it is essential to guide and motivate the team towards the goal. To achieve this the entrepreneur should possess effective leadership qualities to keep the team focused on the goal of the enterprise. As a leader, the entrepreneur should exhibit

  1. strong will power
  2. effective business acumen
  3. and communication skills

to drive the enterprise towards the goal, during difficult times.

What is the significance of the entrepreneurial competency ‘Systematic planning’? Watch Video🎥

Every enterprise requires the availability of resources like

  1. Time
  2. Funds
  3. Labour

The entrepreneurs gather funds majorly from their personal savings. They put all their efforts and time to establish their enterprise. Any deviation in the planning of the enterprise’s activities will be disastrous and result in the collapse of their dream. In order to put all of these resources to the optimum use, and to spend them in the right direction, they should prepare a detailed systematic planning. They should strictly implement this systematic planning to drive all of their resources towards the goal.

What are business ethics? Watch Video🎥

While conducting business, the enterprise should guard itself from potentially controversial issues such as

  1. Aversion from corporate social responsibility
  2. Bribery
  3. Corporate Governance
  4. Discrimination
  5. Exploitation by insider trading
  6. Fiduciary responsibilities

The study of proper business policies and practices related to the above controversial issues is know as ‘Business ethics’.
Business ethics are often guided by law. Sometimes they provide the basic framework that business choose in order to gain public acceptance.
Why should an entrepreneur should consider ‘Business ethics’ are critical to sustain his business? Watch Video🎥

The entrepreneur, while doing the business, interact with the social environment. The entrepreneur’s success purely depends on how the external environment perceives his idea. Any sort of non-adherence to business ethics is likely to put them on the verge of fatality. The should adopt what is termed as ‘Social Entrepreneurship’, ‘Corporate social responsibility’, ‘Social corporate entrepreneurship’.
Focusing completely on the business problems is likely to overlook ethical problems. So, they should be cautious. Non-adherence to business ethics has crashed the business giants like Enron, WorldCom, Anderson etc. So, it is essential for the entrepreneur to adhere to ‘Business ethics’ for the success of the enterprise.
Once the business is successful, few of the ethical standards that help the entrepreneur to retain their success are

  1. Appropriate measures to maintain quality and quantity standards
  2. Bearing the environmental responsibilities
  3. Conforming to the labour laws.
  4. Discouraging the child labour
  5. Efficacious usage of the natural resources

How do you segregate the entrepreneurs based on the technology? Watch Video🎥

Depending on the use of technology entrepreneurs are classified as

  1. Technical entrepreneurs : These entrepreneurs use their
    1. Knowledge
    2. Specialization
    3. Skill

    to develop new or improved products or services. They are technology oriented. Usually they pay more attention production rather than marketing.

  2. Non-Technical entrepreneurs: They focus on innovative marketing and distribution strategies to expand their business. They usually do not pay much attention to the technical details of the product or service.

How do you segregate the entrepreneurs based on the motivation? Watch Video🎥
Based on the motivation, the entrepreneurs are segregated as

  1. Spontaneous : They are self-motivated and also known as natural entrepreneurs. They undertake entrepreneurship for personal satisfaction in work, ego or status. They are highly creative.
  2. Induced : These entrepreneurs undertake entrepreneurship to grab the opportunities that come their way like government’s support for prospective entrepreneurs etc. Some times, the circumstances like unemployment or not satisfied by their current job will also force them to adopt entrepreneurship.
  3. Motivated : These entrepreneurs are highly ambitious and are motivated by their desire to put their talent or skill into practical use. They adopt the entrepreneurship as they’re confident of their idea turning into a successful venture. They’re further motivated when their innovative product or service is adopted by the market and bring them profits.

Draw the diagram depicting the entrepreneurial values.

According to Abraham Maslow’s “Hierarchy of Needs” theory, What is the role esteem plays on human beings? Watch Video🎥

According to The Maslow – Hierarchy of Needs Theory, esteem is a typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. To achieve this they often engage themselves in a hobby or profession that could bring them reputation.
Internally all people will have

  1. self-respect
  2. self-esteem
  3. desire for esteem from others

Self-esteem is critical for survival. It contributes majorly to the normal and healthy development of a person. Lack of esteem results from imbalance and could lead to inferiority complex.
In addition to inner esteem factors, people also have a need for external esteem factors like

  1. Appreciation
  2. Attention
  3. Dominance
  4. Fame
  5. Glory
  6. Prestige
  7. Recognition
  8. Reputation

Thus esteem plays a vital role, both internally and externally on human beings. It has a huge impact on their personal growth.

How does the competency ‘Creativity and Innovation’ help the entrepreneurs to achieve their goal? Watch Video🎥

  1. Few individuals have creativity and innovation as a basic characteristic. This help them to achieve their goal.
  2. In certain cases, they may not have new and creative ideas to introduce a new product or service. But they use creative ideas and innovate the existing products or services(make them), to meet the challenges of a situation.
  3. Thus, the competency ‘Creativity and Innovation’ helps the entrepreneurs to create wealth with very small effort.
  4. This also brings them numerous opportunities, as they do not have to innovate a new product or service right from scratch. They just have to use their creativity and innovation to improve upon the existing product or service, to ease out any challenges.

What are the benefits an organization gets by supporting the ‘Intrapreneurs’? Watch Video🎥
An organization gets the following benefits by supporting the ‘Intrapreneurs’.

  1. Intrapreneurs have entrepreneurial competencies in them. Thus the organization is assured that the new special projects or ideas get the due attention.
  2. Intrapreneurs work on a win-win situation. Thus the organization is guaranteed of best output.
  3. The organization gets new opportunities (the intrapreneur’s ideas) to capitalize.
  4. By supporting and encouraging the intrapreneurs, they will be able to retain highly talented and motivated employees. Otherwise, they quit the job and join a competitor. Sometimes they themselves become competitors by starting a new enterprise.
  5. With their entrepreneurial thoughts, the intrapreneurs are always thinking of better products or services. This helps the organization to keep pace with the competing markets.

Define ‘Entrepreneur’ Watch Video🎥

Entrepreneur : An entrepreneur is

  1. an innovator of new ideas
    1. to creates new products or services
    2. or improve the existing products or services
  2. exploits an opportunity
  3. commercializes his innovation

What’re the different types of entrepreneurs? (You can watch the video of Give a brief about various types of entrepreneurs. Watch Video🎥)

Entrepreneurs are broadly categorized into four different types according to C.Danhof (Clarence Danhof).

  1. Innovative : These entrepreneurs innovate new products or services or improve upon them. They are very aggressive and intelligent to put their ideas into practice. These are common among the developed countries.
  2. Imitative : They follow the innovative entrepreneurs and are flexible to adopt their ideas. They start the enterprise by imitating other people’s ideas. They bring about the change and are very crucial for the underdeveloped economic societies
  3. Fabian : Fabian entrepreneurs are the entrepreneurs with the following features.
    1. Adopt and follow conventional approaches
    2. Belong to family business
    3. Cautious
    4. Display lazy and shy behaviour
    5. Exhibit resistance to venture or risk(This can be considered as their crucial behaviour)
    6. Firm in their rigid and fundamental approach.
    7. Go for a change only for the fear of failure and loss.(This can also be considered as their crucial behaviour)
  4. Drone : These are laggards who follow the traditional way of doing business and are reluctant to any change, even if they face losses. They do not utilize the opportunities they come across.

Explain the Motivation process through the model. Watch Video🎥

Motivation is an essential process. The following model explains the motivation process. Its various components can be summarised as follows.
Motivation Model image

  1. Unsatisfied Need : Every human being has an instinct to satisfy their needs or desires or expectations. Sometimes the needs are satisfied and sometimes they are unfulfilled. This leads to tention.
  2. Tention : Unsatisfied needs cause tension in a person. To gt rid of tension they will start searching for ways.
  3. Drives : Searching for relief from tension leads them to the drives that relieve the tension.
  4. Search behaviour : These drives lead to certain search behaviour to find means to satisfy their needs.
  5. Need fulfilled : The need is fulfilled once the means to satisfy their need is found.
  6. Reduced tension : Once the need is satisfied, the tension is reduced.

Once the satisfactions is completed, new unsatisfied needs will arise. This process continues.

Support the fact that the entrepreneurs can be successful only by following the social ethical standards. (For video, please refer to the answers of the questions What are business ethics? Watch Video🎥 AND Why should an entrepreneur should consider ‘Business ethics’ are critical to sustain his business? Watch Video🎥)

While conducting business, the enterprise should guard itself from potentially controversial issues such as

  1. Aversion from corporate social responsibility
  2. Bribery
  3. Corporate Governance
  4. Discrimination
  5. Exploitation by insider trading
  6. Fiduciary responsibilities

The study of proper business policies and practices related to the above controversial issues is know as ‘Business ethics’.
Business ethics are often guided by law. Sometimes they provide the basic framework that business choose in order to gain public acceptance.

The entrepreneur, while doing the business, interact with the social environment. The entrepreneur’s success purely depends on how the external environment perceives his idea. Any sort of non-adherence to business ethics is likely to put them on the verge of fatality. The should adopt what is termed as ‘Social Entrepreneurship’, ‘Corporate social responsibility’, ‘Social corporate entrepreneurship’.

Focusing completely on the business problems is likely to overlook ethical problems. So, they should be cautious. Non-adherence to business ethics has crashed the business giants like Enron, WorldCom, Anderson etc. So, it is essential for the entrepreneur to adhere to ‘Business ethics’ for the success of the enterprise.

Once the business is successful, few of the ethical standards that help the entrepreneur to retain their success are

  1. Appropriate measures to maintain quality and quantity standards
  2. Bearing the environmental responsibilities
  3. Conforming to the labour laws.
  4. Discouraging the child labour
  5. Effecacous usage of the natural resources

What did you understand from the “McClelland’s theory of motivation”? Watch Video🎥

McClelland stated his “Theory of Motivation” after conducting his experiments on more than thousand people, based on the achievement. These needs determine the way in which a person is motivated. Recognizing the dominant need in any person help us to understand how that person is motivated. His theory states that every human being is motivated by the following three factors, depicted in the diagram.
mcclelland-motivation-theory

  1. Achievement : People have an urge for achievement. This need is characterized by
    1. finding solutions to complex problems.
    2. acquiring specialized or complex skills
    3. setting challenging goals and achieving them.
    4. like to receive regular feedback on their progress and achievement.
    5. setting a goal for themselves and get recognition when they succeed.
  2. Affiliation : This need is characterized by
    1. favour for the teamwork
    2. maintain interpersonal relations
    3. tend to reduce high risk and uncertainty
  3. Power : This need is characterized by
    1. desire to control and influence others
    2. likes to win arguments
    3. desire to beat their competitors
    4. desire to persuade others and prevail.

Categorize and explain the types of entrepreneurs according to their business. Watch Video🎥

According to the type, nature and size the business, entrepreneurs can be categorized into five types as follows.

  1. Business Entrepreneur : The business entrepreneur are the most common types of entrepreneurs. They innovate a new product or service. They start the enterprise to exploit their idea economically. Mostly found in the small trading and manufacturing enterprises.
  2. Trading entrepreneurs : They perform the trade either in-house or overseas or both. They closely watch the market for the demand for any product or service and exploit it economically. They’re the fore-runners to implement the ideas and stand ahead of others.
  3. Industrial Entrepreneurs : An industrial entrepreneur is one who establishes an enterprise that manufacture products or provide services which are highly in demand. They exploit the economic resources intoto economically viable ventures. The enterprise, Maruti Suzuki India Ltd, which is in the business of car manufacturing and offering car related services is an example of such enterprises.
  4. Corporate entrepreneurs : These are the entrepreneurs who control or manage or organize an enterprise in the most productive and economic way through their innovative ideas. The promoters of the corporations, those performing the business or trade or established an industry fall into this category.
  5. Agricultural entrepreneurs : They are in the business of agriculture and related products or services. They use innovative techniques, machinery, equipment, irrigation methods to grow and market the crops.

In addition to this, depending on their orientation towards the technology, entrepreneurs are further classified as

  1. Technical entrepreneurs : These entrepreneurs use their
    1. Knowledge
    2. Specialization
    3. Skill

    to develop new or improved products or services. They are technology oriented. Usually they pay more attention production rather than marketing.

  2. Non-Technical entrepreneurs: They focus on innovative marketing and distribution strategies to expand their business. They usually do not pay much attention to the technical details of the product or service.

Describe the various entrepreneurial competencies that an entrepreneur should possess. Watch Video🎥

Creativity and Innovation :
Innovation and creativity are the the most important core values of entrepreneurs. While creativity guide an entrepreneur to dream about creative ideas to improve an existing product or service or solve a problem, innovation guides them to put their ideas into practical use.
An entrepreneur exhibits innovation by

  1. Being unique and original in their solution.
  2. Contributing critical inputs for a new idea
  3. Develop or Improve the existing products or services
  4. Evaluating the new ideas
  5. Focusing on the solution even when failure occurs
  6. Go for a continuous search for problems in the society (so that they can resolve them)





Enterprise Launching : Entrepreneurs should possess the competency to identify the opportunities and make best use of the resources at their disposal, by launching an enterprise. This trait is what stands them apart from the crowd.
Enterprise Management : Managing an enterprise is a crucial competency that an entrepreneur should possess. The success of the enterprise depends on the the level of an entrepreneur’s expertise in enterprise management. They should be well acquainted with various functions in the management like

  1. Planning
  2. Organizing
  3. Staffing
  4. Directing
  5. Leadership
  6. Communication
  7. Motivation

Information seeking : The amount of information an organization has at its disposal plays a crucial role in the success of the organization. The entrepreneur should gather the information about changing trends in consumer behaviour, market demand, new technology being introduced, competitor analysis etc. This helps them in decision making process, thus driving the organization towards its goal.
Initiative : This is one of the basic competency that every entrepreneur should possess. Taking initiative in the starting point in an entrepreneurial process. The entrepreneur should be vigilant of the consumer behaviour, market dynamics, launch of new products to spot an opportunity. Once the opportunity or idea is spotted they should take the initiative to start the entrepreneurial process. Once the entrepreneurial process is started they should increase the pace to establish an enterprise.
Leadership : Many of the entrepreneurial ventures are unique and new. From the start of the enterprise to the stage where the product or service is introduced into the market, there is lot of uncertainty associated and the entire enterprise has to go through many hurdles and roadblocks. During this, it is essential to guide and motivate the team towards the goal. To achieve this the entrepreneur should possess effective leadership qualities to keep the team focused on the goal of the enterprise. As a leader, the entrepreneur should exhibit

  1. strong will power
  2. effective business acumen
  3. and communication skills

to drive the enterprise towards the goal, during difficult times.
Persistence : Many of the entrepreneurial ventures are unique and new. So, they need a very close watch. Once the product or service is in place, it should be marketed. If the market for the new product does not exist, the entrepreneur should find new ways to create the market, for selling their product or service. During this process, they encounter many hurdles. The entrepreneur should be highly persistent in their efforts and should not give up. Thus persistence is a vital entrepreneurial competency that the entrepreneur should possess.
Persuasion and Influencing Others : While performing various entrepreneurial functions, the entrepreneur has to deal with various individuals and institutions. They should be able persuade their ideas and influence others so that other people are ready to accept their products are services. To do so they’ve to be well acquainted with the innovative features of their products or services and how their products much better than those prevailing in the market.
Problem solving : The entrepreneurs start their enterprise to commercialize a new product or service. As the product or service is new and the enterprise is just started, there will be lot of obstacles they would come across in the path of their goal. They should be capable of coming up with a number of different solutions to the problem at hand. They should seek alternate strategies and solutions. They should possess strong problem solving skills to achieve this.
Quality Performance : They should have a tendency to maintain quality standards in their products or services. They can achieve this by establishing their own standards or adopt the standards set by others. Maintaining high quality standards will help them to win the consumer loyalty.
Risk taking and risk management : As the area into which the entrepreneur is venturing is new, there lot of uncertainty associated at various levels. This poses risk at various stages of entrepreneurial process. The entrepreneur should be risk taking to move ahead. At the same time, after they’ve started the enterprise and the risk surfaces, they should be capable of managing the risk.
Systematic Planning : Every enterprise requires the availability of resources like

  1. Time
  2. Funds
  3. Labour

The entrepreneurs gather funds majorly from their personal savings. They put all their efforts and time to establish their enterprise. Any deviation in the planning of the enterprise’s activities will be disastrous and result in the collapse of their dream. In order to put all of these resources to the optimum use, and to spend them in the right direction, they should prepare a detailed systematic planning. They should strictly implement this systematic planning to drive all of their resources towards the goal.
Elaborate the facts that the attitudes are acquired, behavioural, invisible and pervasive. (You can watch the video of the question Give a brief of each of the features of attitude. Watch Video🎥)

The following are the features of the attitude.

  1. Acquired: The attitude is not acquired by birth. During childhood we acquire the attitude mostly from the family members. As we grow, we start acquiring the attitude from the society. We acquire the attitude gradually (not instantaneously). The process of acquiring the attitude remains throughout the life span.
  2. Behaviour: People behave in accordance to their attitude. In the absence of an influence, people with certain attitude behave in an intended way.
    For instance, when you enter a mobile store, you want to purchase a specific model of a certain company in the absence of any external influence. Attractive ads displayed in the store can influence you and change your behaviour(to purchase a different model or a phone of a different company). Even the sales man/girl might influence you to purchase a different model or brand. But in the absence of these external intervention to change your behaviour, you behave as per your attitude.
  3. Concealed or Invisible : Attitude is purely psychological and is not externally visible. However, depending on the behaviour a person exhibits towards a commodity or person or country, we can guess the attitude of a person. For instance, depending upon the interest shown by a student on a specific subject, we can infer that the student has a positive attitude towards that subject or faculty.
  4. Pervasive: An individual acquires an attitude through the social interaction with different individuals in the society. Different incidents and interactions with others form different attitudes in a person. Thus the attitude is not just developed by a person and many external factors are involved in forming an attitude in a person.
    For instance the experience a person had after using a cell phone might form a positive or negative attitude towards the manufacturing company of that phone.
    Another example is the experience a person had with the water in a restaurant a restaurant might form a positive or negative attitude about the restaurant itself.
    Thus it is clear that the attitude is pervasive by nature.

Why should the entrepreneurs exhibit the leadership qualities like persistence and systematic planning. (For video, watch the persistence and systematic planning sections of the answer Describe the various entrepreneurial competencies that an entrepreneur should possess. Watch Video🎥)

Many of the entrepreneurial ventures are unique and new. So, they need a very close watch. Once the product or service is in place, it should be marketed. If the market for the new product does not exist, the entrepreneur should find new ways to create the market, for selling their product or service. During this process, they encounter many hurdles. The entrepreneur should be highly persistent in their efforts and should not give up. Thus persistence is a vital entrepreneurial competency that the entrepreneur should possess.

Every enterprise requires the availability of resources like

  1. Time
  2. Funds
  3. Labour

The entrepreneurs gather funds majorly from their personal savings. They put all their efforts and time to establish their enterprise. Any deviation in the planning of the enterprise’s activities will be disastrous and result in the collapse of their dream. In order to put all of these resources to the optimum use, and to spend them in the right direction, they should prepare a detailed systematic planning. They should strictly implement this systematic planning to drive all of their resources towards the goal.
Thus these two competencies help the entrepreneur to become an effective leader.

Describe various entrepreneurial attitudes. Watch Video🎥

To be a successful entrepreneur the entrepreneur should possess the following attributes.

  1. Adopting the change : The entrepreneurs should be ready to adopt the change and move out of their comfort zone. A change is necessary to achieve something. Change can be either in goal, technology, place or employees etc. They should be quick to adopt the change to grab the opportunities associated with the change.
  2. Courageous : The entrepreneur should have the courage and not afraid of failure. They understand that failures are stepping stones to success and never let the fear of failure hold them from ventures. Even the investors understand this fact. When it comes to a choice, other things being equal, an investor would prefer a person who has failed than a person who has never ventured.
  3. Decision making in time : The entrepreneurs should be able to take quick decisions. They should be wise enough to decide on what to do. At the same time they should plan the things in an organized way. This would help them to grab an opportunity without missing. Otherwise, there is possibility of losing an opportunity.
  4. Ethical : They should adopt and follow the business ethics and should be a role model for their employees and other associates. The customer would like to do business with a person who has ethics as compared to a competitor who is not ethical in practice.
  5. Flexible : They should be flexible enough to adopt the changes in accordance with the changes in the market and technology. Especially for a small scale venture, this flexibility will be an added advantage as adopting the change would be easier, as compared to a large scale enterprise. At the same time they should be rigid enough and stick to the core values and ethical practices.
  6. Open-minded : They should be open to accept criticism and ready to accept their mistakes (if any). They should win the confidence of the employees and other associates so that the employees do not hesitate to give their honest opinions when they think that their employer has taken a wrong decision, or when they have a better opinion. Entrepreneurs can convey to the employees and other associates that they’re open to suggestions or they can convey this message through a misson statement.
  7. Passionate : Entrepreneurs should have passion in their work and love what they’re working upon. This will help them to stay unaffected during tough times. This will also help them to become role model for their employees. It is likely that the passion will decrease during tough times. They should take some time off during these times. During this time they can re-kindle the passion by reminding themselves of all the valid reasons about the motive behind starting the enterprise and the advantage of being their own boss.
  8. Resilient : Every business is likely to go through tough times at sometime or the other. When there is a down fall, they should be resilient enough to rebound back on track. The loss can not be recovered. However, they should consider the setbacks as valuable lessons.
  9. Self-caring : The entrepreneur plays critical role in moving the organization towards its goal. Their non-availability in the enterprise due to health reasons is likely to put the enterprise in chaos. They should take care of their health first, as they’re the prestigious asset of the enterprise. Everything else is secondary. Being healthy improves their appearance and in turn will bring positive energy and impact on the customers or employees or other associates.
  10. Self-confident : The entrepreneur should be confident enough about their pursuit or venture and about taking it to its intended goal of success. Their confidence will have a positive impact on the employees, customers and other associates with who they’ve a day to day interaction and thus improves the productivity of the enterprise.
  11. Self-control : The success and profit shouldn’t make the entrepreneur to be proud or get them into the mode of lavish spending on luxuries. They should keep themselves under control to preserve the profits for the tackling the uncertainties. They should not let the ego come in their way to listen to other peoples ideas and suggestions with patience.
  12. Trustworthy : They should crate an environment to win the trust of their employees and build a system of integrity in their enterprise. The same is applicable with the customers and other stake-holders. Thus they’ll be able to win the confidence of others which in turn have a positive impact on the productivity and profitability of the enterprise and to win against their competitors.

What did you understand from Maslow’s theory of needs or motivation? Watch Video🎥

According to Maslow’s theory of motivation or hierarchy of needs there are five elemental needs based on which every individual is motivated. The following pyramid shows these needs, in a hierarchy.

Physiological : They are at the bottom of the hierarchy. Unsatisfied physiological needs like food, water sleep etc., create physiological and physical tension in a person and motivate the person towards satisfying these needs. Once these needs are fulfilled, the person moves towards the next motivating need i.e., Safety.

Safety : The need for security and shelter becomes the second motivating factor. This includes the safety and security of family, employment, property etc. One would feel the need to live life that is free from fear, tension and they want to be under the protection of order and law. People will put all their efforts so that they get whatever is required to put them under security and protection. Once this need is satisfied the need for the next motivating factor i.e, Love/Belonging drives them.

Love/Belonging : The third motivating need is the need for love and belonging. Humans by nature are social loving. Getting connected with the relatives and family, making friends in the college or office or in their locality or community will exhibit the effort they put to make them socially belonging. Once these needs are satisfied the next motivating need i.e., Esteem becomes predominant.

Esteem Esteem is a typical human desire to be accepted and valued by others. To achieve this they often engage themselves in a hobby or profession that could bring them reputation.
Internally all people will have

  1. self-respect
  2. self-esteem
  3. desire for esteem from others

Self-esteem is critical for survival. It contributes majorly to the normal and healthy development of a person. Lack of esteem results from imbalance and could lead to inferiority complex.
In addition to inner esteem factors, people also have a need for external esteem factors like

  1. Appreciation
  2. Attention
  3. Dominance
  4. Fame
  5. Glory
  6. Prestige
  7. Recognition
  8. Reputation

Thus esteem plays a vital role, both internally and externally on human beings. It has a huge impact on their personal growth.
Self-Actualization: This is the highest need of a person. To achieve this they put constant effort to develop themselves. This need motivate them to learn, create, understand and experience their potential.

In what ways the employees are different as compared with entrepreneurs? (The video will be same as that of the question Describe the most important core values of the entrepreneurs. Watch Video🎥)

Feature Entrepreneur Employee
Motive To start an enterprise for personal satisfaction and to commercially exploit their innovative products or services. Provide service in an enterprise of their choice and work as per their aptitude and get a secured employment.
Role Owner of the enterprise and the sole decision maker. Servant in the enterprise with limited authorities.
Responsibilities They bear all the risk and constantly working for the enterprise. They do not bear the risk and work for only specified work hours.
Benefits They take all the profits earned by the enterprise. The profit is uncertain at times. In addition to this they enjoy the success of the enterprise. They take fixed salary. Sometimes they get bonus, if any, during special occasions or depending on their performance. Their takeaway income is limited. They can not have the sense of ownership of the enterprise.
Innovation They are constantly watching for the changes in the market and the environment to innovate better products or services and to drive the organization towards its goal. They perform their day to day activities of the job and meet the targets set by the business.
Qualification They should possess the entrepreneurial qualities like

  1. Self-motivated
  2. Creative and Innovative
  3. Ability to gauge the future
  4. risk-taking
  5. risk-bearing
  6. Persistence
They should have an educational qualification depending on the nature of the job. For instance, an engineer should have a degree in B.E/B.Tech/M.Tech, a manager should have an M.B.A in production or marketing etc. The qualities like being creative, persistent would be an added advantage.

How does the various entrepreneurial competencies strengthen the entrepreneur to achieve their goal? (The video will be the same as that of the question Describe the various entrepreneurial competencies that an entrepreneur should possess. Watch Video🎥)

Creativity and Innovation :
Innovation and creativity are the the most important core values of entrepreneurs. While creativity guide an entrepreneur to dream about creative ideas to improve an existing product or service or solve a problem, innovation guides them to put their ideas into practical use.
An entrepreneur exhibits innovation by

  1. Being unique and original in their solution.
  2. Contributing critical inputs for a new idea
  3. Develop or Improve the existing products or services
  4. Evaluating the new ideas
  5. Focusing on the solution even when failure occurs
  6. Go for a continuous search for problems in the society (so that they can resolve them)

Enterprise Launching : Entrepreneurs should possess the competency to identify the opportunities and make best use of the resources at their disposal, by launching an enterprise. This trait is what stands them apart from the crowd.
Enterprise Management : Managing an enterprise is a crucial competency that an entrepreneur should possess. The success of the enterprise depends on the the level of an entrepreneur’s expertise in enterprise management. They should be well acquainted with various functions in the management like

  1. Planning
  2. Organizing
  3. Staffing
  4. Directing
  5. Leadership
  6. Communication
  7. Motivation

Information seeking : The amount of information an organization has at its disposal plays a crucial role in the success of the organization. The entrepreneur should gather the information about changing trends in consumer behaviour, market demand, new technology being introduced, competitor analysis etc. This helps them in decision making process, thus driving the organization towards its goal.
Initiative : This is one of the basic competency that every entrepreneur should possess. Taking initiative in the starting point in an entrepreneurial process. The entrepreneur should be vigilant of the consumer behaviour, market dynamics, launch of new products to spot an opportunity. Once the opportunity or idea is spotted they should take the initiative to start the entrepreneurial process. Once the entrepreneurial process is started they should increase the pace to establish an enterprise.
Leadership : Many of the entrepreneurial ventures are unique and new. From the start of the enterprise to the stage where the product or service is introduced into the market, there is lot of uncertainty associated and the entire enterprise has to go through many hurdles and roadblocks. During this, it is essential to guide and motivate the team towards the goal. To achieve this the entrepreneur should possess effective leadership qualities to keep the team focused on the goal of the enterprise. As a leader, the entrepreneur should exhibit

  1. strong will power
  2. effective business acumen
  3. and communication skills

to drive the enterprise towards the goal, during difficult times.
Persistence : Many of the entrepreneurial ventures are unique and new. So, they need a very close watch. Once the product or service is in place, it should be marketed. If the market for the new product does not exist, the entrepreneur should find new ways to create the market, for selling their product or service. During this process, they encounter many hurdles. The entrepreneur should be highly persistent in their efforts and should not give up. Thus persistence is a vital entrepreneurial competency that the entrepreneur should possess.
Persuasion and Influencing Others : While performing various entrepreneurial functions, the entrepreneur has to deal with various individuals and institutions. They should be able persuade their ideas and influence others so that other people are ready to accept their products are services. To do so they’ve to be well acquainted with the innovative features of their products or services and how their products much better than those prevailing in the market.
Problem solving : The entrepreneurs start their enterprise to commercialize a new product or service. As the product or service is new and the enterprise is just started, there will be lot of obstacles they would come across in the path of their goal. They should be capable of coming up with a number of different solutions to the problem at hand. They should seek alternate strategies and solutions. They should possess strong problem solving skills to achieve this.
Quality Performance : They should have a tendency to maintain quality standards in their products or services. They can achieve this by establishing their own standards or adopt the standards set by others. Maintaining high quality standards will help them to win the consumer loyalty.
Risk taking and risk management : As the area into which the entrepreneur is venturing is new, there lot of uncertainty associated at various levels. This poses risk at various stages of entrepreneurial process. The entrepreneur should be risk taking to move ahead. At the same time, after they’ve started the enterprise and the risk surfaces, they should be capable of managing the risk.
Systematic Planning : Every enterprise requires the availability of resources like

  1. Time
  2. Funds
  3. Labour

The entrepreneurs gather funds majorly from their personal savings. They put all their efforts and time to establish their enterprise. Any deviation in the planning of the enterprise’s activities will be disastrous and result in the collapse of their dream. In order to put all of these resources to the optimum use, and to spend them in the right direction, they should prepare a detailed systematic planning. They should strictly implement this systematic planning to drive all of their resources towards the goal.




You might also want to refer the following pages.
Books & Other Material

  1. Entrepreneurship: Concept and Functions
  2. Entrepreneurial Journey
  3. Entrepreneurship as Innovation and Problem Solving
  4. Concept of Market
  5. Business Finance and Arithmetic
  6. Resource Mobilization